|Date/Report Number ..010613.FNYO1HY.04 Item: AMERICA CIVIL WAR MILITARYWATCHBOX|
|Description of item: UNITED STATES OF AMERICA
CIVIL WAR MILITARYWATCHBOX FEATURING 1861-1864 CONFEDERATE STATES OF AMERICA C.S.N.
[ C.S. NAVY ] BAROMETER AND U.S.A. & C.S.A. CIVIL WAR MEMORABILIA
.Estimated Retail Replacement Value $4999.00
|Reports are supplied at the request of the customer and it is for the customer's exclusive use. Reports express an opinion of the time of the examination of the jewelry. This report is for customers use only for the following two purposes, indicating estimated retail replacement value to obtain insurance coverage, or for the purpose of providing geological information. goldsmith Works does not guarantee that the appraisal valuation will result in a sale at the price. Estimated retail replacement value is arrived after analyses of what the approximate high retail cash asking price is for labor, materials, and design. These prices may be substantially higher than actual transaction or warranty with regards to any item described in the report, since jewelry grading is not an exact science, this report represent the best opinion of the company. GoldSmith Works is in no case responsible for differences that occur by repeated grading by other experts in the field and/or use of other standards, norms, methods or criteria other than those used by GoldSmith Works. GoldSmith Works is expressly held harmless by customers including, but with out limitation for any claims or actions that may arise out of negligence in connection with the preparation of this laboratory report, or actions based upon the customer's use of the report. The information on the carat weight, clarity grade, color grade on the report is approximate due to the limitations in jewelry grading. The item was tested, graded, and examined under 10x magnification using the techniques and equipment available to GoldSmith Works, including fully corrected triplet loupe, binocular microscope, master color comparison guides, diamond color comparison tools, electronic carat balance, non-contact optical measuring device, and ancillary instruments necessary at the time of Exam|
[ C.S. NAVY ]
U.S.A. & C.S.A.
THIS OFFER CONTAINS AN IMMENSE AMOUNT OF INFORMATION DUE TO THE FACT WE ARE COVERING A CONFEDERATE NAVAL INSTRUMENT DATING TO 1864; THE US CIVIL WAR; PRESIDENT LINCOLN; THE HISTORY OF THE US NAVY; THE HISTORY OF THE CONFEDERATE NAVY; AND OTHER LIKE FACTS, WITH THIS IS MIND, REMEMBER THAT ALL INFORMATION AND PICTURES WILL BE, AND ARE, A PART OF THIS OFFER AND WILL BE PLACED IN YOUR ONLINE APPRAISAL SO YOU MAY DOWNLOAD THIS INFORMATION . THIS IS IMPORTANT IF YOU EVER CHOSE TO SELL OR BEQUEATH THIS US CIVIL WAR MILITARY WATCH BOX. SO BEAR WITH ME AS I BEGIN YOUR JOURNEY:
table of pneumatics 1728 cyclopedias
SCIENTISTS BUILT INSTRUMENTS OF SCIENTIFIC STUDY SINCE THE DAYS OF ANCIENT GREECE. BY THE 1800'S, WHEN EVER A NEW INSTRUMENT THAT WORKED AND HAD A PURPOSE, IT WAS HAILED AS MUCH AS THE I PHONE IS TODAY. ONE INSTRUMENT THAT WOULD PROVE ITS VALUE AND BECOME THE COMPUTER OF THE MID TO LATE 1800'S WAS THE BAROMETER.,.
[NOTE: THE BAROMETER WOULD CONTINUE TO BE IMPORTANT UNTIL COMPUTER TOOK OVER]
MID TO LATE 1800 BAROMETER ADVERTISEMENT
MOST EARLY BAROMETERS WERE MADE IN FRANCE WITH ENGLISH DIALS
Barometer - Pronunciation: [b u rom´ u t u r] - a barometer is an instrument for measuring atmospheric pressure. Two common types are the aneroid barometer and the mercurial barometer (invented first). Evangelista Torricelli invented the first barometer, known as the "Torricelli's tube". Barometers measure air pressure and were used for measuring altitude, or height above and below ground, such as the height of a mountain, the altitude aboard a hot air balloon or the depth of a mine. By the late 1800's, the barometer was as popular, as the computer is today. Competition for market share was meant that the finest cabinet and clock makers devoted their talents to providing the best barometers.
Evangelista Torricelli is credited with inventing the barometer in 1643
Although historical documentation suggest Italian mathematician and astronomer Gasparo Berti unintentionally built a water barometer between 1640 and 1643 and French scientist and philosopher René Descartes described an experiment to determine atmospheric pressure in 1631, there is no evidence that anyone built a working barometer until Evangelista Torricelli invented a and built a barometer in 1643.
Evangelista Torricelli was born October 15, 1608, in Faenza, Italy and died October 22, 1647 in Florence, Italy. He was a physicist and mathematician. In 1641, Evangelista Torricelli moved to Florence to assist the astronomer Galileo. It was Galileo that suggested Evangelista Torricelli use mercury in his vacuum experiments. Torricelli filled a four-foot long glass tube with mercury and inverted the tube into a dish. Some of the mercury did not escape from the tube and Torricelli observed the vacuum that was created. Thus Evangelista Torricelli became the first scientist to create a sustained vacuum and to discover the principle of a barometer. Torricelli realized that the variation of the height of the mercury from day to day was caused by changes in the atmospheric pressure. Torricelli built the first mercury barometer . Evangelista Torricelli also wrote on the quadrature of the cycloid and conics, the rectifications of the logarithmic spiral, the theory of the barometer, the value of gravity found by observing the motion of two weights connected by a string passing over a fixed pulley, the theory of projectiles and the motion of fluids.
An Aneroid Barometer, invented in 1843 by French scientist Lucien Vidie uses a small, flexible metal box called an aneroid cell (capsule), which is made from an alloy of beryllium and copper The evacuated capsule (or usually more capsules) is prevented from collapsing by a strong spring. Small changes in external air pressure cause the cell to expand or contract. This expansion and contraction drives mechanical levers such that the tiny movements of the capsule are amplified and displayed on the face of the aneroid barometer. Many models include a manually set needle which is used to mark the current measurement so a change can be seen. In addition, the mechanism is made deliberately "stiff" so that tapping the barometer reveals whether the pressure is rising or falling as the pointer moves.
Robert Fitzroy, son of Lord Charles, was born at Ampton Hall, Suffolk, in 1805 and entered the Navy at the age of 12. During his long career, he was for many years Captain of the HMS Beagle which achieved fame as a result of Charles Darwin's expeditions. He eventually rose to the rank of Admiral, was elected Member of Parliament for Durham in 1841, and appointed Governor of New Zealand in 1843. In 1850, he turned his attention to the science of meteorology. Among his considerable accomplishments, he induced the Times to print weather information on a daily basis and the Board of Trade to supply many coastal villages with barometers. He designed a vastly improved marine barometer. In 1862 he published his Weather Book which summarized his extensive and immensely important work on meteorology.
The Barometer Rises
The Barometer falls
PRESIDENT ABRAHAM LINCOLN
February 12, 1809 - April 15, 1865
Self-educated, Abraham Lincoln was born on February 12, 1809 to a poor family on the western frontier . He would eventually became a country lawyer, a Whig Party leader in the Illinois state legislator and served as a Captain in the Illinois Militia during the Black Hawk War during the 1830s, and, in the 1840s, a one-term member of the United States House of Representatives. Abraham Lincoln stood on sound principles which included the ending slavery and the promotion of economic and financial modernization.
In 1858, Lincoln, a moderate from a swing state, with his eye on a Senate seat, was involved in a series of debates that provided national visibility to his opposition to the expansion of slavery. Though the times were right, and many in the north and south heard the call, Lincoln lost the Senate race to his arch-rival, Stephen A. Douglas.
"A house divided against itself cannot stand. I believe this government cannot endure permanently half slave and half free. I do not expect the Union to be dissolvedI do not expect the house to fallbut I do expect it will cease to be divided. It will become all one thing, or all the other."
Two years later, in 1860, Lincoln secured the Republican Party presidential nomination . With almost no support in the South, Lincoln swept the North and was elected president. His election was the final self-perceived indignity of the south, seven southern slave states declared their secession from the Union and formed the Confederacy. While the departure of the Southerners offered Lincoln's party firm control of Congress, no compromise or reconciliation was possible. No one truly realized what was to come -nor that President Lincoln would successfully lead his country through what would be its greatest constitutional, military, and moral crisis to preserve "THE UNION".
"Both parties deprecated war, but one of them would make war rather than let the Nation survive, and the other would accept war rather than let it perish, and the war came."
White House copy of the lost 1868 painting. Sherman, Grant, Lincoln, and
Porter aboard the River Queen on March 27th & March 28th, 1865.
LINCOLN'S CIVIL WAR
On the 12th of April, 1861, the Confederate States of America [The South] declared war with the United States of America by attacking Fort Sumter. In response, the United States of America [The North] rallied behind the National Flag as President Lincoln concentrated on the military and political ramifications of what was now a war effort. With the South officially in a state of insurrection, and thousands of powerful, influential and wealthy individuals who had yet to "join sides" or "Show their colors", President Lincoln immediately exercised his authority to suspend habeas corpus, arresting and temporarily detaining thousands of suspected secessionists without trial.
President Lincoln had to perform a balancing act as he waded through defections of officers and politicians and business men and, most of all, foreign nations who saw the events unfolding as a means of gaining an upper hand. President Lincoln averted British recognition of the Confederacy by skillfully handling the Trent affair in late 1861:
Known as the Mason and Slidell Affair occurred
during the American Civil War. The USS San Jacinto, commanded by Union Captain Charles
Wilkes, intercepted the British mail packet RMS Trent and removed, as contraband of war,
two Confederate diplomats, James Mason and John Slidell who were bound for Great Britain
and France to press the Confederacys case for diplomatic recognition in Europe.
Initial reaction was to rally threaten the British with war; but President Abraham
Lincoln did not want to risk war. The British government demanded an apology & release
of the prisoners After several weeks of war talk , the Lincoln administration released the
envoys and disavowed Captain Wilkes's actions. No formal apology was issued. Mason and
Slidell resumed their voyage to Britain but failed in their goal of achieving diplomatic
President Lincoln' efforts toward the abolition of slavery include issuing his Emancipation Proclamation in 1863, encouraging the border states to outlaw slavery, and helping push through Congress the Thirteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, which finally freed all the slaves nationwide in December 1865.
November 19, 1863
Four score and seven years ago our fathers brought forth on this continent a new nation, conceived in liberty, and dedicated to the proposition that all men are created equal.
Now we are engaged in a great civil war, testing whether that nation, or any nation, so conceived and so dedicated, can long endure. We are met on a great battle-field of that war. We have come to dedicate a portion of that field, as a final resting place for those who here gave their lives that that nation might live. It is altogether fitting and proper that we should do this.
But, in a larger sense, we can not dedicate, we can not consecrate, we can not hallow this ground. The brave men, living and dead, who struggled here, have consecrated it, far above our poor power to add or detract. The world will little note, nor long remember what we say here, but it can never forget what they did here. It is for us the living, rather, to be dedicated here to the unfinished work which they who fought here have thus far so nobly advanced. It is rather for us to be here dedicated to the great task remaining before usthat from these honored dead we take increased devotion to that cause for which they gave the last full measure of devotionthat we here highly resolve that these dead shall not have died in vainthat this nation, under God, shall have a new birth of freedomand that government of the people, by the people, for the people, shall not perish from the earth.
President Lincoln closely supervised the war effort, especially the selection of top generals, like Ulysses S. Grant; brought leaders of the major factions into his cabinet; set up a naval blockade ending the South's trade, took control of the border slave states;gained control of communications with gunboats on the southern river systems; repeatedly attacked the Confederate capital at Richmond until finally Grant succeeded in 1865.
STARS & STRIPES
21MM / .89 INCH XCROSS TOP
37.9 MM / 1.4 INCHES XCROSS BOTTOM
27 MM / 1.07 INCHES CENTER BOTTOM TO TOP
NOTE ROCK PURCHASED A TON OF CIVIL WAR ITEMS IN
HE ACTUALLY PLACED LITTLE VALUE ON THEM AND ACTUALLY WORE A FEW
ITEMS THAT ARE NOW IN THIS OFFER INCLUDING THIS 1863 ELECTION PIN
ON HIS LEATHER BIKERS VEST FOR OVER20 YEARS. IN FACT,
ON SUNDAY JAN 6, 2012 HE RAN OVER TO THE SHOP AND
PULLED THIS PIECE AND THE BULLET YOU WILL SEE
FURTHER ON DOWN!
GREAT CLOSE UP!
NOTHING BUT THREE HOLES REMAIN!
THIS 1863 ELECTION/CAMPAIGN PIN
IS IN GREAT CONDITION EVEN THOUGH
IT SAW LOT OF WEATHER
This Top Hat Pin is two piece. The Top Hat is
composed of brass and finished in enamel. The second piece is a mounted brass hinged Pin
that allows the Pin to move without constant bending and attaches into a 1800's flattened
C clasp; the part of the clasp that holds the pin in place formed in the shape of a C.
Though Broaches and other similar items made after 1900 can be discovered with this same design, the c clasp was mostly replaced by the LOCKING C clasp. The locking C clasp, invented around 1900, used a locking mechanism to keep the pin from falling away.
CANNOT MAKE OUT WHAT LOOKS TO BE A SIGNATURE IN SCRIPT
BUT IT IS CLEARLY DATED 1863 AND NEW YORK
THERE IS OTHER NUMERAL CODING INCLUDING "122"
An exceptionally astute politician , President Lincoln reached out to War Democrats and managed his own 1864 re-election campaign. A leader of the moderate faction, Lincoln' policies and personality were "blasted from all sides": Radicals Republicans demanded harsher treatment of the South, War Democrats compromise, Copperheads despised him, secessionists plotted his death.
President Lincoln fought back with patronage, pitting his opponents against each other while appealing to the American people with oratory. His Gettysburg Address became the most quoted speech in American history. At the close of the war, seeking to quickly reunite the nation, Lincoln believed in a policy of generous reconciliation in the face of lingering and bitter divisiveness.
Six days after the surrender of Confederate
commanding general Robert E. Lee, President Lincoln was assassinated by Confederate
sympathizers [ John Wilkes Booth]. Lincoln has been consistently ranked by scholars and
the public as one of the three greatest U.S. presidents, the others being George
Washington and Franklin D. Roosevelt.
SIGNED CSN 1864
BAROMETER HAS AN
ORIGINAL BRASS OR BRASS ALLOY CASE
[OUR RESEARCH INDICATES IT WAS ORIGINALLY COATED WITH LACQUER]
ORIGINAL TURNING BEZEL
ORIGINAL GLASS CRYSTAL
WITH CHIPS ON EDGES
THE CASE WAS NOT MACHINE BUFFED
WE USED A POLISHING CLOTH TO LIGHTLY
REMOVE SOME OXIDATION
THIS DOES NOT EFFECT THE VALUE
IN FACT THERE ARE SEVERAL BAROMETER RESTORATION FIRMS
THEY COAT THE CASE WITH LACQUER
OUR CLEANING WAS TO INSURE INTEGRITY OF THE CASE
WE ARE NOT GOING TO RE-LACQUER IT
SO, EVEN IN THE 21 X 17 X 3 INCH CASE
THE BRASS WILL ONCE AGAIN
GROW ITS COAT OF OXIDATION
CASE IS IN GREAT CONDITION
THE STEM AND TOP PIECE HAVE
NOTHING TO DO WITH MECHANICAL OPERATION
LOOKS AS IF YOU COULD USE IT TO
MOUNT THIS RATHER LARGE BAROMETER
ORIGINAL FINISHED WHITE PORCELAIN DIAL
HAS SOME MINOR EDGE REPAIRS
SIGNED CONFEDERATE STATES
THE HOLE IS A MEANS TO ADJUST THE HAND
IS 78MM / 3.09 INCHES INCLUDING CS STEM
CASE WITHOUT STEM 66MM / 2.6 INCHES
WIDTH IS 26.8MM / 1.02 INCHES
YOU CAN SEE SOME HAIR LINES
THE OUTER EDGE IS WHERE
ROCK REPAIRED A FEW CHIPPED AREAS
PURCHASED ANOTHER BAROMETER FOR THE ANEROID CELL
[THE SILVER COLOR ANEROID CELL EXPANDING MECHANISM CENTER OF UNIT]
IT WAS IN BAD SHAPE BUT LOOKED SIMILAR
WHEN IT ARRIVED THE INTERNAL PARTS DATED LATER THAN 1864
AND WOULD NOT WORK UNLESS WE USED THE ENTIRE UNIT.
WOULD BE FINE EXCEPT FINDING A 1862-1864
SIGNED CONFEDERATE INSTRUMENT LIKE THIS
IS RARE IN ANY CONDITION & IS WORTH AT LEAST 1000.00
LOOKS LIKE THE ANEROID CELL WAS REPAIRED ONCE
THE EDGES HAS A 1862 DATE STAMP
ADJUSTED AND LUBRICATED ALL THE PARTS
NOTE IT LOOKS LIKE ANOTHER PART IS DATED 1861
WAY IT WORKS IS
THE AIR IN THE SILVER COLOR ANEROID CELL EXPANDS
AND CONTRACTS WITH TEMPERATURE AND PRESSURE
WHEN IT EXPANDS IT PUSHES THE BLACK SPRING STEEL
WHICH LIFTS OR LOWERS THE BRASS ARM
WHICH PUSHES THE END PIECE
WHICH PULLS A BICYCLE STYLE CHAIN
AROUND THE CENTER SHAFT
MOVING THE DIAL HAND
A HAIR SPRING PULLS THE HAND
BACK AS PRESSURE CHANGES.
THIS IS SIGNED UNDER THE MECHANISM
DIAL IS PORCELAIN TOP AND BACK
AND IS DATED IN THE PORCELAIN
VIRGINIA 1862 CSN
IS A DATE ENGRAVED
ON THE ANEROID CELL OF
USA STATES GREY
CSA STATES GREEN / CLAIMED STATES LIME
The Confederate States of America (CSA), also known as the Confederacy, was a government set up from 1861 to 1865 by a number of Southern slave states that had declared their secession from the United States. The Confederacy recognized as members eleven states that had formally declared secession, two additional states with less formal declarations, and one new territory. The Confederacy was eventually defeated in the American Civil War against the Union. Secessionists argued that the United States Constitution was a compact among states, an agreement which each state could abandon without consultation. The United States government rejected secession as illegal. Following the Confederate attack at Fort Sumter, the Union used military action to defeat the Confederacy. No foreign nation officially recognized the Confederacy as an independent country,] but several did grant belligerent status.
The Confederate Constitution of seven state signatoriesSouth Carolina, Mississippi, Florida, Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana and Texasformed a "permanent federal government" in Montgomery, Alabama, in February 1861. Four additional slave-holding statesVirginia, Arkansas, Tennessee and North Carolinadeclared their secession and joined the Confederacy following a call by U. S. President Abraham Lincoln for troops from each state to recapture Sumter and other lost federal properties in the South. Missouri and Kentucky were represented by partisan factions from those states.
Also aligned with the Confederacy were the "Five Civilized Tribes" and a new Confederate Territory of Arizona. Efforts to secede in Maryland were halted by martial law, while Delaware, though of divided loyalty, did not attempt it. A Unionist government in western parts of Virginia organized the new state of West Virginia which was admitted to the Union on June 20, 1863. The Confederate government in Richmond, Virginia, had an uneasy relationship with its member states due to issues related to control of manpower, although the South mobilized nearly its entire white male population for war.
CIVIL WAR NEWS
THE PHYSICAL DATING OF THIS
1861 - 1864
THUS WE WERE ABLE TO CHOOSE
OUR THIRD ADDITION
U.S. CIVIL WAR
MILITARY WATCH BOX
AN ORIGINAL COPY
U.S. ARMY NAVY JOURNAL
16 10 x 14.5 inches Pages
JUNE 25, 1864
WHAT WOULD A CIVIL WAR BOX BE WITHOUT NEWS.
THAT IS PERIOD NEWS AS IT HAPPENED
THE FOLLOWING IS AN ORIGINAL ARMY NAVY JOURNAL
PUBLISHED JUNE 25TH, 1864. DETAILING THE CURRENT NEWS
CONCERNING THE CAMPAIGNS OF 3 GENERALS
AND THE ONGOING BATTLE IN VIRGINIA
WITH NEWS OF BOTH THE NORTH AND THE SOUTH
16 ORIGINAL PAGES WITH WOOD BLOCK PICTURES
WITH CASUALTIES AND ADVERTISEMENTS OFFERING
GUNS (WITH PICS) AND OTHER ITEMS DEMONSTRATING
THAT PEOPLE CONDUCTED THEIR LIVES LIKE WE DO TODAY
AT LEAST IN THE NORTH!.
THIS IS AN AWESOME KEEP SAKE
FANTASTIC FOR READING AND SHOWING.
DELIVERS THE FACTS WITH THE NEWS OF THE WAR
AS IF YOU WERE THERE ON THAT 25TH OF JUNE IN 1864,
|U.S. ARMY NAVY JOURNAL
VOLUME 1 ISSUE # 44, JUNE 25, 1864
16 10 x 14.5 inches Pages
The *United States Naval Academy (also known as USNA, Annapolis, or Navy) is a four-year Federal service academy located in Annapolis, Maryland, United States. Annapolis was founded as the Naval School in 1845 by Secretary of the Navy George Bancroft. The campus was established at Annapolis on the grounds of the former U.S. Army post Fort Severn. The school opened on 10 October with 50 midshipmen students and seven professors. The decision to establish an academy on land may have been in part a result of the Somers Affair, an alleged mutiny involving the Secretary of War's son that resulted in his execution at sea. Commodore Matthew Perry had a considerable interest in naval education, supporting an apprentice system to train new seamen, and helped establish the curriculum for the United States Naval Academy. He was also a vocal proponent of modernization of the navy.
Originally a course of study for five years was prescribed. Only the first and last were spent at the school with the other three being passed at sea. The present name was adopted when the school was reorganized in 1850 and placed under the supervision of the chief of the Bureau of Ordnance and Hydrography. Under the immediate charge of the superintendent, the course of study was extended to seven years with the first two and the last two to be spent at the school and the intervening three years at sea. The four years of study were made consecutive in 1851 and practice cruises were substituted for the three consecutive years at sea. The first class of naval academy students graduated on 10 June 1854.
In 1860, the Tripoli Monument was moved to the academy grounds. Later that year in August, the model of the USS Somers experiment was resurrected when the USS Constitution, now 60 years old, was pulled out of ordinary and refurbished as a school ship for the fourth-class midshipmen. She was anchored at the yard, and the plebes lived on board the ship to immediately introduce them to shipboard life and experiences
U.S. Naval Academy in 1853
The Civil War was disruptive to the naval academy. Southern sympathy ran high in Maryland. Although riots broke out, Maryland did not declare secession. The United States government planned to move the school, when the sudden outbreak of hostilities forced a quick departure. Almost immediately the three upper classes were detached and ordered to sea, and the remaining elements of the academy were transported to Fort Adams, Newport, Rhode Island by the USS Constitution in April 1861 and setup in temporary facilities and opened there in May.
|CSN Ensign 1863-1865||CSN Ensign 1861-1863||CSN JACK 1861-1863|
LOSS OF USN PERSONAL TO THE CSN
The United States Navy was stressed by the situation as 24% of its officers resigned and joined the Confederate States Navy, including 95 graduates and 59 midshipmen, as well as many key leaders involved with the founding and establishment of USNA.
The first Superintendent, Admiral Franklin Buchanan, joined the Confederate States Navy as its first and primary admiral.
Captain Sidney Smith Lee, the second commandant of midshipmen, and older brother of Robert E. Lee, left Federal service in 1861 for the Confederate States Navy.
Lieutenant William Harwar Parker,CSN, class of 1848, and instructor at USNA, joined the Virginia State Navy, and then went on to become the superintendent of the Confederate States Naval Academy.
Lieutenant Charles Savez Read may have been "anchor man" (graduated last) in the class of 1860, but his later service to the Confederate States Navy included defending New Orleans, service on CSS Arkansas and CSS Florida, and command of a series of captured Union ships that culminated in seizing the US Revenue Cutter Caleb Cushing in Portland, Maine.
Lieutenant James Iredell Waddell, CSN, a former instructor at the US Naval Academy commanded the CSS Shenandoah.
The first superintendent of the United States Naval
Observatory who advocated the creation of the United States Naval Academy, after whom
Maury Hall is named, similarly served in the Confederate States Navy.
Civil War hero Admiral David Dixon Porter became superintendent when the midshipmen and faculty returned to Annapolis just after the war ended in the summer of 1865.
*The entire campus is a National Historic Landmark and home to many historic sites, buildings, and monuments.
CIVIL WAR NAVY
MEDAL & RIBBON
CONFEDERATE STATES OF AMERICA NAVY
The Confederate States Navy (CSN) was the naval branch of the Confederate States armed forces, established by an act of the Confederate Congress on February 21, 1861. It was responsible for Confederate naval operations during the American Civil War. The three major tasks of the Confederate Navy during the whole of its existence were the protection of Southern harbors and coastlines from outside invasion, making the war costly for the United States by attacking U.S. merchant ships world-wide and breaking the Union Blockade by drawing off U.S. Navy ships in pursuit of the Confederate raiders.
The C. S. Navy could never achieve equality with the Union Navy, so it used technological innovation, such as ironclads, submarines, torpedo boats, and naval mines (then known as torpedoes) to gain advantage.
In February 1861 the Confederate Navy had thirty
ships, only fourteen of which were seaworthy, while the Union Navy had ninety vessels; the
C. S. Navy eventually grew to 101 ships to meet the rise in naval conflicts and enemy
On April 20, 1861 the Union was forced to quickly abandon the important Gosport Navy Yard. In doing so they failed to effectively burn the facility, its supply and arms depots, or in-port ships. As a result the Confederacy captured much needed war materials and ordnance. Of most importance the South gained the shipyard's dry docks, sorely needed to build new warships. (The Confederacy's other major navy yard was in Pensacola, Florida). Ships left at the Norfolk shipyard included a screw frigate named USS Merrimack.
It was C. S. Navy Secretary Stephen Mallory's idea to raise the partially burned Merrimack and heavily armor the ship's newly rebuilt upper works with thick oak planking and two courses of heavy iron plate, turning it into a new kind of warship: an all-steam powered "iron clad". The new ship, after being converted to an ironclad ram, was christened CSS Virginia and in 1862 SHE aggressively attacked and nearly broke the Union Navy's sea blockade of wooden warships, and then, on the second day, proving the effectiveness of the ironclad warship, she fought USS Monitor in the Battle of Hampton Roads, to a draw. This event came to symbolize the end of the dominance of large wooden sailing warships and the beginning of the age of iron and the ironclad warship.
Between the beginning of the war and the end of 1861, 373 commissioned officers, warrant officers, and midshipmen had resigned or been dismissed from the United States Navy and had gone on to serve the Confederacy. The Provisional Congress meeting in Montgomery accepted these men into the Confederate Navy at their old rank.
In order to accommodate them they initially provided for an officer corps to consist of four captains, four commanders, 30 lieutenants, and various other non-line officers. On April 21, 1862, the First Congress expanded this to four admirals, ten captains, 31 commanders, 100 first lieutenants, 25 second lieutenants, and 20 masters in line of promotion; additionally, there were to be 12 paymasters, 40 assistant paymasters, 22 surgeons, 15 passed assistant surgeons, 30 assistant surgeons, one engineer-in-chief, and 12 engineers.
The act also provided for promotion on merit: "All the Admirals, four of the Captains, five of the Commanders, twenty-two of the First Lieutenants, and five of the Second Lieutenants, shall be appointed solely for gallant or meritorious conduct during the war
AS YOU ARE NOW AWARE
MANY OF THE VERY NAVAL OFFICERS
WHO FOUNDED, STUDIED OR TAUGHT AT
THE U.S. NAVAL ACADEMY AT ANNAPOLIS
UNITED STATES NAVAL OFFICERS
WHO CALLED UPON U.S.N. HISTORY
HELPED MAKE U.S.N. HISTORY
WERE PART OF U.S.N. HISTORY
HAD ANCESTORS IN U.S.N. HISTORY
WOULD DEFECT TO THE CONFEDERATE STATES
DUE TO THE FACT THAT THE MAIN ITEM IN THIS
U.S. CIVIL WAR
MILITARY WATCH BOX
CONFEDERATE STATES NAVAL BAROMETER
OUR NEXT CHOICE ITEM TO ADD TO THIS CIVIL WAR MILITARY WATCH BOX
IS AN ORIGINAL HISTORY OF THE U.S.NAVY
FROM IT'S INCEPTION UP UNTIL
THE CIVIL WAR YEAR OF 1862
IT INCLUDES A FANTASTIC
24 6 X 9" PAGES
COVERING A WEALTH OF
FACTS, STORIES, LEGENDS AND LORE
THIS 1862 HISTORICAL FEATURE
32 WOOD BLOCK PRINTS
COMPLETING WHAT WAS AND IS
A HISTORY OF THE HISTORY
UNITED STATES NAVY
|History of the U.S. Navy
Benson J. Lossing (1862)
24 6" x 9" Pages with 32 wood block illustrations
|Chesapeake||Esek Hopkins||Joshua Barney||Richard Dale||Jacob Jones|
|Commodore Truxtun's medal||Edward Preble||naval monument at Annapolis||effect of a torpedo||William Bainbridge|
|gun boats||Lynn Haven Bay||John Rodgers||Isaac Hull||James Lawrence|
|Chesapeake and Shannon||Sir Philip Bowes Vere Broke||Lawrence's first monument
||graves of Burrows and Blyth||Oliver H. Perry|
|Isaac Chauncey||Sir James Lucas Yeo||Cumberland Head||scene of naval action||Thomas Macdonough|
|Commodore Downie's grave||Decatur's monument||Stephen Decatur||USS
Robert E Lee
THE MINIE BALL
The Minié ball, or Minie ball, is a type of muzzle-loading spin-stabilizing rifle bullet named after its co-developer, Claude-Étienne Minié, inventor of the Minié rifle. It came to prominence in the Crimean War and American Civil War.
At the beginning of the Civil War over one thousand types of bullets were available for use in the rifles and pistols that were available. Of those thousand style and types one deadly style would shoot to the top [pun intended] to become the standard issue.
Between 1826 to 1832, various musket ball design had been proposed. In 1832 the cylindro-conoidal bullet was designed by Captain John Norton. By 1848, French Army captains Montgomery and Henri-Gustave Delvigne invented a bullet design that allowed rapid rifle muzzle loading; One of the features was that the bullet was shaped in a cylindro-conoidal shape like a modern bullet [not rounded], an innovation allowed the widespread use of the rifle as a mass use battlefield weapon.
The "minié" ball [for this discussion and product "minie" does not mean small] would soon follow. The Minié ball was a conical-cylindrical soft lead bullet, slightly smaller than the intended firearm barrel's bore, with (original design) four exterior grease-filled grooves and a conical hollow in its base. The bullet was designed by Minié with a small iron plug and a lead skirting. Its intended purpose was to expand under the pressure and fit itself to the barrel walls and increase the muzzle velocity.
This hollow based lead bullet would become the standard USA and CSA issue. While there existed different minie ball designs, all had grease packed grooves which expanded under intense heat and pressure from the powder charge and a hollow conical base with a thin rim to hold and trap the powder charge.
After testing and refinement, the MINIE BALL was ultimately adopted as the standard bullet in 58 caliber size for the United States military Springfield rifle and later gained widespread use in the civil war.
Made of soft lead with a hollow conocal base to trap expanding gas and allow for expansion when fired, the expanding gas pushed forcibly on the base of the bullet deforming it to engage the rifling in the barrel. This end result was deadly. The Minnie Ball would compress into the grooved rifling and spin as it left the barrel providing accuracy unattained before. The sealing of the bullet to the barrel walls provided consistent velocity, longer range, and kept the barrel clean of barrel debris. Yet the advent of the minie ball and the high velocity and increased range of the bullet as it spun resulted in the destruction and shattering of the objects it hit, namely flesh and bone. The severe wounds that resulted were horrible. Where only 5 years before, men might survive a leg arm or other flesh and bone shot, which usually amounted to fractures, with the minie ball, an absolute and complete shattering of the bone replaced the fracture. This resulted in the need for amputation, and even then, tissue infection, osteomeyolitis, sepsis, and ultimately death would follow in many cases.
5 CSA USA BULLETS
First Battle of Bull Run Or First Manassas
July 21, 1861
Virginia - A Confederate victory:
McDowell loses to J.E. Johnston, Beauregard;
Jackson named "'STONEWALL' JACKSON"
Second Battle of Bull Run or Second Manassas
August 2830, 1862
Virginia A Confederate victory:
Lee defeats Pope's Army of Virginia
Battle of Gettysburg July
Pennsylvania A Union victory:
Lee loses to Meade,
Pickett's Charge fails,
ends second invasion of North
Battle of Gettysburg Pennsylvania July 13,
UNION TROOPS 93,921
CONFEDERATE TROOPS 71,699
UNION George G. Meade
CONFEDERATE Robert E. Lee
UNION CASUALTIES 23,055
CONFEDERATE CASUALTIES 23,231
.59 CAL MINIE TRENCH ART
ROCK INVESTED IN THIS BULLET IN 1990
ALONG WITH THE STARS
AND STRIPES 1863 CAMPAIGN PIN
AND OTHER GENUINE
CIVIL WAR PERIOD RELICS
SOME HE WORE ON HIS LEATHER
MOTORCYCLE VEST FOR 20 YEARS
HE NEVER THOUGHT HE WOULD
OFFER THEM IN A
MILITARY WATCH BOX!!
BULLET WITHOUT BALE
14.6 MM XCROSS SIDE
32.6 GRAMS [1 OZ]
GREAT CLOSE UP SHOT
SEE THAT EARLY
MINE CUT RUBY
SET INTO THE BULLET TOP?
THICK SILVER WIRE BALE
AN ENAMEL ON BRASS
MOUNTED ON OTHER END
THE MASONS EMBLEM IS
SET INTO THE LEAD
THE BULLET SPINS ON THE WIRE
THE BULLET ORIGINALLY HAD SURFACE CORROSION
BUT 20 YEARS OF SPINNING AGAINST
THE LEATHER VEST CLEANED IT UP
NEAR MINT COPY
MY DAYS AND NIGHTS
ON THE BATTLEFIELD
Charles Carleton Coffin
Born July 26, 1823
Boscawen, New Hampshire
Died March 2, 1896
Charles Carleton Coffin was an American journalist,
Civil War correspondent, author and politician.AND one of the best-known newspaper
correspondents of the American Civil War. The "Ernie Pyle of his era," he was
called "a soldier of the pen and knight of the truth.".
A descendant of Tristam Coffin who arrived in the American colonies from England in 1642, Charles Carlton Coffin was born in Boscawen, New Hampshire and grew up in rural New Hampshire. Home-schooled by his parents, his life revolved around the church.
During an illness in 184142, he had purchased a book about surveying and developed what one biographer calls "an engineer's eye," which led to an interest in roads, rivers and elevations which, by the age 21, he was hired on to a surveying crew working on the road from Boston to Concord, Massachusetts. While employed there, he suffered a severe injury to his ankle which ended his job and would prevent him from serving as a soldier in the Civil War.
Charles' keen mind enabled him to achieve a self-taught education in engineering, lumbering and music. He would fiund employment once again in the engineering division of the Northern Railroad, and on February 18, 1846, he married Sally Russell Farmer.
Charles' became interested in the new field of electricity and would use that knowlege to gain employment on a power line between Boston and Cambridge and played a major role in the construction of an electronically transmitted fire alarm system.
Charles would change careers once more, this time he obtained employment with the Boston Journal newspaper. While employed, he and Sally visited the Saratoga battlefield in 1854. Charles' grandfather had fought in this Revolutionary War battle in 1777. This visit led Charles to mentaly reconstruct the positions and maneuvering of those who had participated. This interest would have a direct effect on his later reporting during the Civil War.
A few years later Charles Coffin inherited 80 acres of land in Illinois, and he and Sally traveled west to inspect it. Shortly before this, Charles had visited Washington, D.C., and had become interested in politics as a result of listing to speeches by Senator Thomas Hart Benton of Missouri, and other well-known political figures. While in Illinois, this new interest in politics led Charles to attend the Republican National Convention of 1860 which was held in Chicago. After the convention Charles was a member of the group that travelled from Chicago to Springfield to advise Abraham Lincoln that he had won the party's nomination for the presidency. In his job as a newspaper reporter, he went on to cover the 1860 election campaign and was in Washington to cover Lincoln's inauguration in March 1861.
Long opposed to slavery and secession, there would be no question of Charles Coffin's loyalty to the Union cause but, due to the old ankle injury, military service which demanded long marches was not an option. Massachusetts Senator Henry Wilson suggested to Charles that his eye for detail and his command of language would make him an ideal person to cover the war as a correspondent.As an independant journalist, Coffin began visiting the army camps and fortifications around Washington and sending reports to a variety of newspapers. The reports included "human interest" stories obtained through interviews with military personnel ranging from newly enlisted privates to generals.
The first major engagement between the Union and Confederate armies was the battle of Bull Run (or Manassas, as it was called in the South) only a few miles out of Washington. Coffin was there and his written accounts of the battle and its aftermath so impressed the editors of his old paper, the Boston Journal, that the paper hired him to "cover the war" at a salary of $25 per week. He worked alone, without assistants, and was frequently the first to get reports from the war's battlefields to the media. He was present at, or immediately after, most of the major battles in the eastern theater, including those of Antietam and Gettysburg. He was the first to break the story of the Battle of the Wilderness, and was to become the only news correspondent to serve throughout the entire warfrom before the battle of Bull Run, through Lee's surrender at Appomattox.
Coffin was always welcome at Union Army camps and
was well-known and on friendly terms with many of the highest Union officers, including
General Ulysses Grant, who gave Coffin a pass that allowed him to go anywhere in the Union
camps and on the battlefields. Coffin was present when General George Meade replaced
Joseph Hooker as commander of the Army of the Potomac just prior to the battle of
Gettysburg. Coffin rode with Major General Winfield Scott Hancock on the approach to
Gettysburg, and then accompanied Gen. Strong Vincent and Col. Joshua Chamberlain on their
way to the successful defense of the strategic hill known as Little Round Top. When the
fighting ended after Pickett's charge, Coffin rode 28 miles (45 km) through a driving
rainstorm in two and a half hours, and then boarded a train to Baltimore, Maryland, from
where he was able to telegraph his story of the battle to the Boston Journal, the first
news the nation had of that decisive battle.
Coffin was present in South Carolina when the flag was raised over the retaken Fort Sumter, and then hastened back to rejoin Gen. Grant for the final drive to Appomattox for Gen. Lee's surrender. During the war Coffin had used his middle name "Carleton" to sign off on his stories.
After the war Coffin returned to Boston for a
well-deserved rest, but soon was at work on a series of books detailing his experiences as
a correspondent. He wrote My Days and Nights on the Battlefield (1864), Following the Flag
and Four Years of Fighting, both published in 1865. Between 1888 and 1891 he also
published Drumbeat of the Nation, Marching to Victory (which contained a long account of
the Battle of Gettysburg), and Redeeming the Republic. Later, Coffin made a trip to Japan,
China and India and described that trip in a book entitled Our New Way Around the World.
Finally, he turned to writing stories related to his boyhood and New England heritage,
five books in all, and wrote several novels as well as biographical materials on
presidents Abraham Lincoln and James Garfield.
Charles Carleton Coffin was not only well-known to many U.S. political and military leaders, but to many noted U.S. writers and to a large number of foreign dignitaries. His name is listed on the War Correspondent's Arch at Gathland, Maryland. He died in Brookline, Massachusetts, on March 2, 1896, a few months short of his 73rd birthday.